diumenge, 31 de maig de 2009

INTORDUCTION THEORY

THEORY OF EVOLUTION THROUGH ENERGETIC EQUILIBRIUM



Prologue


Mutations and natural selection are two important concepts bound up with evolution. The modern evolutionary synthesis (MES) establishes that when a species is separated into populations that are prevented from interbreeding mutations and natural selection cause the emergence of new species. Living organisms are susceptible to suffer beneficial or harmful mutations; if they experiment an advantageous one they will be “selected for “by natural selection, and will continue reproducing and transferring their better shaped genes (or should we say lucky genes?), on the other hand; if the mutation is adverse, living organisms will be “selected against “by natural selection and eventually will perish along with their descendants and less fit genome; the accumulation of differences caused by beneficial mutations over generations creates traits helpful for survival; living organisms become new species after long periods of time accumulating new traits.

The following is a textbook case that depicts the previous evolutionary process: before England made its industrial revolution, in London’s outskirts’ forests there was a species of white butterfly; London became more and more industrialized casting dark fumes into the atmosphere and soiling the forests with black soot which made the white butterflies more easy to spot by birds and other predators; apparently, one of the insects had a favorable mutation and was born black, this new trait made it more difficult to discern by birds and other predators: the black butterfly was better fit to survive; with time, most of them were black. This example fairly represents the main idea of the theory brought forward by the MES on how living organisms experiment change through mutations and the survival implications that they entail.

The previous example it is a logical and very credible story; however, I have several reasons to think that the theory produced by the MES is not quite accurate: how it is possible that our intelligence, which epitomizes evolution in our planet, has emerged thanks to random events called mutations? If you think that evolution is triggered by mutations, you should also agree that master pieces of classic music, famous paintings, all anthropical expressions of art and creativity, along with theories and laws discovered by a myriad of extraordinary scientists in all fields of human knowledge and, in short, everything related with human intellect, is also product of a fortuitous and chanced event (or a sequence of them) that shaped a pre-hominid’s brain a few millions years ago. Wouldn’t it be natural to suppose that the evolutionary process, that leads to the appearance of the brain and intelligence, it’s been caused by a phenomenon different than a random and fortuitous event?, if precisely the outcomes of our intelligence are the contrary of randomness and fortuitousness !

In this essay I will explain the Theory of evolution through energetic equilibrium; this is its central idea: living organisms evolve towards new species— through a process called energetic equilibrium—, when they are forced to suffer permanent variations of stimuli existing in their environment. In order to support my thesis, first, we will see how modern biology contains important inconsistencies and contradictions regarding evolution, and how it fails to give a convincing explanation for the apparition of more complex species. The MES is build upon two erroneous mechanisms to explain evolution: mutations as the precursors of evolution and natural selection as the mechanism that drives it, and contains an important omission: it doesn’t have in consideration the interaction of genes with the environment.

Once exposed the non-viable postulates of modern biology, and the need for a more coherent evolutionary theory that considers the impact of the environment on genes, in chapter 3, I will elucidate the Theory of general relativity of stimuli and stress from which emanates the evolutionary hypothesis onto which the Theory of evolution through energetic equilibrium is build, and I will explicate how I came with its central axiom and all its principles.






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